Perl 6
Perl 6 Operator Tablet: Revision 24
"Overview"[Perl 6 Tablets] - _Chapter:_ "0:History"[Perl 6 History Tablet], "1:Design"[Perl 6 Language Design Tablet], "2:Basics"[Perl 6 Basics Tablet], "3:Var"[Perl 6 Variable Tablet], *"4:Op"[Perl 6 Operator Tablet]*, "5:IO"[Perl 6 IO Tablet], "6:{}"[Perl 6 Block Tablet], "7:Sub"[Perl 6 Subroutine Tablet], "8:OOP"[Perl 6 OOP Tablet], "9:Rx"[Perl 6 Regex Tablet], "10:Meta"[Perl 6 Meta Tablet]
"Intro"[Perl 6 Intro Tablet] - _Appendices:_ "A:Index"[Perl 6 Index Tablet], "B:Tables"[Perl 6 Lookup Tablet], "C:Cook"[Perl 6 Cookbook Tablet], "D:Delta"[Perl 6 Delta Tablet], "E:Best of"[Best Of Perl 6 Tablet], "F:Links"[Perl 6 Links Tablet]

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{toc: }

_Perl folkore: Perl is an operator based language._

Perl 6 has a huge amount of operators, because they support 2 of the main design goals: they offer *dense* and *readable* code. _{{2 + 3}}_ is certainly shorter and easier to understand then _{{add(2,3)}}_, since "pictograms"{link: [perl 6 language design tablet] visual metaphor} can be picked up faster than words. (Fortran made his whole carrier on that). But because they are so many, they had to be sorted by a rule named "huffman coding"{link: [perl 6 language design tablet] huffman coding}, which was applied here more than in any other part of the syntax.

_

To understand an operator you have to know his *arity* (how many parameters he takes - usually one (!) or two (+) ).

The *"precedence"{link: [perl 6 lookup tablet]table of precedence}* tells which operator to prefer in case of conflict, when no braces are used (round braces are only used for grouping and managing precedence). It allows 2 + 3 * 5 to return 17, not 25, which would upset your math teacher.

Behind that link is a table which also tells you also the *"associativity"{link: [perl 6 lookup tablet]Operator Associativity}* of every operator. This tells you after which rule to resolve precedence if one operator is used several times like in "2 * 3 * 7".

^ Comparison and testing in the scalar context

^^ Smartmatch

This is most likely the mother of all Perl 6 operators and can be called the "compare-this-with-that-operator". Because he allows to relate nearly everything with everything (it's much more powerful than the small version, backported into 5.10), its behaviour is complex, even he tries to do just what you expect him to do.

> ~~ !~

^^ Equality

> eqv eq == ===
> != !==

^^ Traversing Sequence

> ++ -- succ pred

"sequence generation"{link: Sequence Operator}

^^ Generic Comparsion

> before after cmp

^^ Numerical Comparsion

> < == > <=> <= >=

^^ String Comparsion

> lt eq gt leg le ge

^^ joined comparison

> 3 < $a == $a < 7

is not the same as

> 3 < $a < 7

because latter is evaled at once and the first in 2 steps (left to right)

^^ Junctions

> | & ^

^^ Ranges

> .. ^

^^ logical selection

> && - and
> || - or
> // - err
> ^^ - xor

see also "numerical selection"{link: numerical selection}

^^ ternary

> ?? !!

^^ flipflop

> ff fff

^^ file test

"table"{link: [Perl 6 Lookup Tablet]Filetest Ops}

^^ yadda

> ...
> ???
> !!!

^ context forcing scalar ops

^^ bool context

> ? !
> ?& ?| ?^

^^ numeric context

> + - * ** / % %%
> +& +| +^ +< +>
> mod exp sqrt sin cos tan log log10

^^^ numerical selection

> min max minmax

^^ String context

> ~ x
> ~& ~| ~^ ~< ~>

^ Ops for arrays/lists

^^ List generation

The simplest way to create a list is by repeating some values:

> 'munch' xx 3 # results in 'munch', 'munch', 'munch'
> ('hallo', 'echo') xx 2 --> 'hallo', 'echo', 'hallo', 'echo'

In list context the range operator produces lists:

> @ 2 .. 7 --> 2,3,4,5,6,7

^^^ Sequence Operator

> ...

"traversing sequence"{link: Traversing Sequence}

^^ Zip

> Z

^^ Combinators

> X

^^ Hyperops

> << >>

^^ Reduce

> [ ]

^^ Triangle

> {{[\ ]}}

^^ Feed Ops

> <== ==>

^ Assignment ops

^^ self assigning ops

^ precedence table

"is in Appendic B"{link: [Perl 6 Lookup Tablet]Table of precedence}

^ intentionally not existing ops

^ making own operators

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"Overview"[Perl 6 Tablets] - _Chapter:_ "0:History"[Perl 6 History Tablet], "1:Design"[Perl 6 Language Design Tablet], "2:Basics"[Perl 6 Basics Tablet], "3:Var"[Perl 6 Variable Tablet], *"4:Op"[Perl 6 Operator Tablet]*, "5:IO"[Perl 6 IO Tablet], "6:{}"[Perl 6 Block Tablet], "7:Sub"[Perl 6 Subroutine Tablet], "8:OOP"[Perl 6 OOP Tablet], "9:Rx"[Perl 6 Regex Tablet], "10:Meta"[Perl 6 Meta Tablet]
"Intro"[Perl 6 Intro Tablet] - _Appendices:_ "A:Index"[Perl 6 Index Tablet], "B:Tables"[Perl 6 Lookup Tablet], "C:Cook"[Perl 6 Cookbook Tablet], "D:Delta"[Perl 6 Delta Tablet], "E:Best of"[Best Of Perl 6 Tablet], "F:Links"[Perl 6 Links Tablet]

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